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In addition to the base feedstock and water, llamas should be provided free choice granular (llamas don't really like blocks) plain salt and a vitamin & mineral supplement tailored to your area:

Nutritional Services Llama Supplement Plus

The soils of the Pacific Northwest are seriously deficient in certain minerals, which can lead to nutritional deficiencies in llamas.  Zinc and selenium deficiencies are common and are most noticeable.  Symptoms of zinc deficiency may include hair loss, itchy noses, and brittle hair.  Selenium deficiency increases the frequency of retained placenta and serious cria health problems, and is typically supplemented in combination with Vitamin E.  Copper levels are also generally low in northwest soils.  Chromium is virtually absent.  Copper deficiency and the resulting adverse health impact has been studied, whereas chromium deficiency in camelids has yet to be studied.  (In humans it's been found that chromium deficiency contributes to overeating and obesity.)  Elderly llamas tend to have declining vitamin C production, sometimes leading to borderline or clinical scurvy.  Rickets (vitamin D deficiency) is pronounced in wooly llamas (less so in "classic" llamas) in the cloudier coastal areas.  On the other hand, Pacific Northwest soils are rich in iron, resulting in very high iron levels in forage.  Supplementing with iron results in excessive serum iron levels (heavy metal poisoning), which aside from the direct adverse health effects also inhibits the absorption of other nutrients.  General purpose feed supplements are not tailored to the unique characteristics of the Pacific Northwest region, and most pelleted supplements are also high in calories.  One of the most prevalent health problems in North American llamas (not to mention people) is excessive weight (in fat), due to their confinement to a sedentary lifestyle.

Northwest Llama Supplement Plus is a regional mineral and vitamin formula developed by professional nutritionists. This quarter inch pelletized feed supplement is sold in 25 pound multi-wall plastic lined bags to ensure freshness and includes a measuring cup inside.  Only 1/2 cup per day is required for normal maintenance -- up to one cup per day for pregnant and lactating females -- which is less than with most other supplements.  This supplement is not an energy booster and hence will not significantly contribute to obesity.  This is strictly a vitamin and mineral supplement for Northwest llamas.

We had a particularly hefty llama that loved to eat.  Emmy just never seemed to get enough (or so she thought).  Her weight rose to an alarming level.  Restricting her regular high calorie feed supplement did not bring about a noticeable reduction (though it did make for a grumpy llama; feeling we were holding out on her).  Recommendations were to lock her in a pen with no grazing and strictly control her forage.  We knew that wouldn't make for a happy llama -- not to mention increase our workload.  Ultimately, we added the Llama Supplement Plus to her diet, and in a few days her aggressive attempts to wolf down all the food before the other girls could get it subsided.  After several months the weight is back to normal and she politely shares the rations; without restricting the free grazing.  Our guess is she was deficient in some nutrient, which prompted a craving she was trying to satisfy by eating more -- getting excessive calories in the process.  We now have a happy (and healthy) llama, free to roam with her herd mates.

Comparative Analysis

1NSI Llama Supplement Plus

2Albers Llama Glo

3Harvest States/ CHS Nutrition
Llama Lunch

4Kropf/CHS Nutrition Pioneer

5Mazuri Llama High Fiber

5Mazuri Lama Chews

6LMF Llama Ration (G)

7Imperial Llama Pellet 8Lakeland Western Supplement 9Nutrena
NW Llama Pellets
10Bar Ale Llama  Concentrate 11Blue Seal Llama Alpaca

Unit

Crude Protein, min.

18.0

15.0

17.25

15.0

14.0

15.0

14.0

15.0

14.5 13.0

17.25

14.0

%

Crude Fat, min.

1.2

2.0

3.4

2.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

2.0

2.5 2.0

2.8

2.5

%

Crude Fiber, max.

8.0

15.0

10.0

17.5

25

12.0

7.0

14.0

13.0 18.0

17.2

14.0

%

Ash, max.

8.0

9.5

?

11.5

8

9.5

?

9.5 ? 11.0

19.6

?

%

Calcium, min.

1.9

1.3

0.75

1.35

0.70

1.5

1.3

1.3 2.0 1.4

2

0.75

%

Calcium, max.

2.1

1.8

1.25

1.85

*

2.5

1.5

1.8 2.5 1.9

4

1.25

%

Phosphorus, min.

1.4

0.8

0.6

*

0.69

1.0

1.1

0.8 2.25 0.8

2

0.65

%

Phosphorus, max.

* * * 0.8 * * * * * * * *

%

Salt (NaCl), min.

1.0

0.5

0.5

*

*

0.5

*

1.0 * 0.25 * 0.75

%

Salt (NaCl), max.

1.5

1.0

1.0

*

*

1.0

*

* 1.0 0.75 * 1.25

%

Potassium, min.

?

*

11000

?

12300

9500

*

* 12000 12000 4000 ?

ppm

Magnesium, min.

3800

*

*

*

3000

3000

*

* 6000 4000 4000 *

ppm

Manganese, min.

2000

*

*

*

200

320

*

* * 100

204

*

ppm

Iron, min.

400

*

*

*

450

400

?

* * *

*

*

ppm

Zinc, min.

2397

*

*

*

211

500

250

* 1050 300

1000

*

ppm

Iodine, min.

37.95

*

*

?

1.9

0.21

*

* 3 ?

9

*

ppm

Chromium, min.

?

? ? ? ? 0.30

?

? ? ? ? ? ppm

Copper, min.

499

*

*

60

22

25

20

* 55 50

23

*

ppm

Cobalt, min.

21.97

*

*

*

0.64

5.3

*

* * *

0.3

*

ppm

Selenium, min.

7.7

2

** 2 (est.)

6.0

0.65

2.0

4.5

0.3025 4 6

5

0.4

ppm

Vitamin A, min.

45000

13000

7000

12000

5897

10886

8000 12000 3190 9000

27868

*

IU/lb

Vitamin D3, min.

17,650

6000

930

5000

998

5000

2000 6000 800 2800

6020

*

IU/lb

Vitamin E, min.

275

50

60

*

11

300

300 50 425 360

873

100

IU/lb

Riboflavin (B2), min.

70.5

?

*

*

3.2

2.1

*

? * *

*

*

ppm

Pantothenic acid (B5), min.

112.4

?

?

*

9.3

7.4

?

? * ?

?

*

ppm

Cobalamin (B12), min.

65

?

*

*

0

0

*

? * *

*

*

mcg/lb

Niacin (B3)

?

?

*

?

38

34

*

? * *

*

*

ppm

Biotin (H)

?

?

*

*

0.25

0.18

*

? * ?

*

*

ppm

Thiamine (B1), min.

119

?

?

*

4.9

5.4

*

? * *

*

*

ppm

Ascorbic/Citric Acid (C), min.

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

ppm

Choline Chloride, min.

9039

0

0

*

840

960

?

? * *

*

?

ppm

Lysine, min. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 7500 ?

*

? ppm

Recommended daily feeding

0.5 - 1 cup
(0.16 - 0.3 lb)

1 - 4 lbs.

0.5 - 4 lbs.

0.4 - 1.75 lbs.

free choice for one hour

0.4 - 2 lbs.

1.2 - 2.8 lbs.

1 - 3 lbs.

1 - 2 lbs.

0.7 - 1.2 lbs.

0.5 - 2 lbs.

Cost per feeding, max. @$25/bag =  .30 @$11/bag =  .88 @$7/bag = .56 @$10/bag = .35 @$13/bag =  $4.08 @$13/bag =  .52

@$13/bag = .73

@$9/bag = .32

@$11/bag = .44

@$11/bag = .26   @$11/bag = .44
Feed size 1/4" 5/32" 5/32"   5/32" 1/4"

5/32"

5/32"

 

5/32" 5/32"  

Listed Base Ingredients (in order of quantity):

Barley

Grain Products

Processed Grain By-products

Processed Grain By-products

Soybean Hulls

Corn

Barley

Grain Products

Alfalfa

Grain Products

Alfalfa Meal

Alfalfa

Soybean Oil Meal

Alfalfa

Grain Products

Forage Products

Wheat Middlings

Wheat Middlings

Corn

Alfalfa

Wheat Middlings

Plant Protein Products

Wheat Mill Run

Wheat Middlings

Alfalfa

Processed Grain By-products

Plant Protein products

Grain Products

Corn

Soybean Hulls

Oats Processed Grain By-products Yellow Corn Processed Grain By-products

Distillers Dried Grains

Corn Distillers Dried Grains

Calcium/ Phosphorus

Plant Protein products

Roughage products

Plant Protein Products

Alfalfa

Soybean Meal

Soybean Meal

Plant Protein products

Yeast Culture Forage Products

Soybean Meal

Corn

Choline

Molasses products

Molasses products

Calcium

Molasses

Calcium/ Phosphorus

Molasses

Molasses products

Calcium/ Phosphorus

Molasses products

Calcium

Soybean Hulls

Salt

Calcium/ Phosphorus

Calcium

Molasses

Soybean Meal

Molasses

Calcium/ Phosphorus

Calcium/ Phosphorus

Soybean Meal

Calcium/ Phosphorus

Soybean Oil

Oat Mill Byproduct

Salt

Salt

Salt

Calcium/ Phosphorus

Alfalfa

Salt

Salt

Ground Flax Salt

Salt

Cane Molasses

 

 

Salt

Soybean Oil

     

 

Yeast Culture

* In ingredient list, but no guaranteed quantity provided.
** In ingredient list, but no guaranteed quantity provided. Estimated 2ppm per relative ranking of ingredients.
? Not in ingredient list and no guaranteed quantity provided.

1Manufactured in Hermiston, OR by Nutritional Services, Inc.
2Manufactured in Portland, OR by Albers Pacific Northwest Milling
3Manufactured in Sioux Falls, SD by Harvest States (Cenex).  Also sold as Payback from CHS Nutrition.
4Manufactured in Harrisburg, OR by Kropf Feed in association with CHS Nutrition. Also sold under the Blue Label, Payback and Equis labels.
5Manufactured by PMI Nutrition Intl. (Purina)
6Manufactured in Spokane, WA by Aslin-Finch Feed Co.
7Manufactured in Vancouver, WA by Lackamas Valley Milling Co.
8Manufactered in Hamilton, MT by Lakeland Feeds
9Manufactured in Minneapolis, MN by Nutrena Feeds
10Manufactured in Williams, CA by Bar Ale Feed Co.
11Manufactured in Londonderry, NH by Blue Seal Feeds

 

Nutritional Services Llama Supplement Plus

$25 per 25 lb bag

 

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Last modified: 15 May 2012